The .ini
file
File structure
The .ini
is consists of blocks like
1 [master]
2 npx=2
3 npy=4
4
5 [advec]
6 swadvec=2
7 cflmax=1.0
The name [advec]
refers for instance to the Advec
class that uses the settings.
This class is found in the source file with the corresponding name (advec.cxx
).
Below the block name are the options consisting of names and values separated by =
.
Advection [advec]
The Advec
class computes the advection tendencies using the chosen scheme.
Note that the odd ordered schemes (e.g. 2i5
) have hyperdiffusion included that results in a smooth solution.
For `2i62
, the interpolations are 6th order accurate in the horizontal, and 2nd order in the vertical.
Variables on the fluxlimit_list
are guaranteed to be monotonically advected.
The order of the advection scheme has to match the order of the spatial discretization, as set by [grid] swspatialorder
.
For more details about the 2nd order accurate schemes, see: dx.doi.org/10.1175/15200493(2002)130%3C2088:TSMFEM%3E2.0.CO;2.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Advection scheme
0 : Disabled2 : 2ndorder2i4 : 2ndorder with 4thorder interpolations2i5 : 2ndorder with 5thorder interpolations2i62 : 2ndorder with 6th/2ndorder interpolation4 : 4thorder (DNS, high accuracy)4m : 2ndorder (DNS, energy conserving) 


Max. CFL for adaptive time stepping 


Use flux limiter for scalars (2i5 and 2i62 only) 
Aerosol [aerosol]
Description: TODO Mirjam.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for aerosols in radiation 


Switch for time dependent aerosols 
Boundary conditions [boundary]
The Boundary
class computes the boundary conditions.
It has a derived class Boundary_surface
that extends the base class in case the surface model is enabled, and Boundary_surface_lsm
which further extends Boundary_surface
with an interactive land surface scheme (HTESSEL based).
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Boundary discretization
default : Resolved boundariessurface : MOSTbased surface modelsurface_lsm : MOSTbased surface model with HTESSEL LSMsurface_bulk : Surface model with prescribed drag coefficients 


Bottom boundary type for momentum variables
noslip : Dirichlet BC with u = v = 0 freeslip : Neumann BC with dudz = dvdz = 0 ustar : Fixed ustar at bottom 


Top boundary type for momentum variables
noslip : Dirichlet BC with u = v = 0 freeslip : Neumann BC with dudz = dvdz = 0 


Bottom boundary type for scalar variables.
Types can be specified per scalar (
sbot[thl]=flux )dirichlet : Dirichlet BCneumann : Neumann BCflux : Flux BC 


Top boundary type for scalar variables.
Types can be specified per scalar (
stop[qt]=neumann )dirichlet : Dirichlet BCneumann : Neumann BCflux : Flux BC 


Bottom boundary value for eastwest velocity (m s1) 


Top boundary value for eastwest velocity (m s1) 


Bottom boundary value for northsouth velocity (m s1) 


Top boundary value for northsouth velocity (m s1) 


Bottom boundary value for scalar variables
Values can be specified per scalar:
sbot[thl]=0.1 . 


Top boundary value for scalar variables
Values can be specified per scalar:
stop[qt]=0 . 


Commaseparate list of scalars that provide a binary
file (
sbot_thl_in.0000000 ) with 2D slice 


Roughness length of momentum (m) 


Roughness length of heat (m) 


Switch for spatially homogeneous z0m/z0h
true : Homogeneous z0m/z0h, from .ini filefalse : Heterogeneous z0m/z0h from z0m.0000000 /z0h.0000000 


Switch for Charnock parameterization ( 


Parameter Charnock parameterization 


Parameter Charnock parameterization 


Parameter Charnock parameterization 


Value of the fixed friction velocity (m s1) 


Drag coefficient for momentum () 


Drag coefficient for scalar () 


Switch for time varying surface BCs 


List of scalars with time varying BCs 


Switch for time varying 2D surface BCs 


Frequency of 2D surface BC input 


List of scalars with nonperiodic lateral BCs 


Flow direction used for
scalar_outflow at each lateral edgeinflow : Inflow (Dirichlet BC)outflow : Outflow (Neumann BC) 


Switch for time varying scalar outflow 
For swboundary=surface_lsm
, the [land_surface]
group contains some additional settings:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Use spatially homogeneous landsurface properties 


Free drainage BC at bottom of soil column 


Switch for allowing open water 


Output individual tile statistics 


Output individual tile column statistics 


Surface emissivity 


Number of vertical soil grid points 
For swhomogeneous=true
, the following surface and vegetation properties need to be specified in the [land_surface]
group:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



gD coefficient in VDP reduction canopy resistance (?) 


Subgrid vegetation fraction (01) 


Leaf area index (m2 m2) 


Minium canopy resistance (s m1) 


Minium soil resistance (s m1) 


Skin conductivity stable conditions (W m2 K1) 


Skin conductivity unstable conditions (W m2 K1) 


Heat capacity skin layer (J K1) 
Budget statistics [budget]
The Budget
class contains the computation of the statistics of the budgets of the second order moments.
It contains the entire Reynoldsstress tensor, the variances of the buoyancy variable, and the budget of the buoyancy flux.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for the budget statistics 
Buffer layer [buffer]
The Buffer
class contains the implementation of the buffer layer in the top of the domain that prevents the reflection of gravity waves back into the domain.
The strength of the buffering is defined per layer as
\(\sigma ( (z  z_\textrm{start}) / ( z_\textrm{size}  z_\textrm{start}) )^\beta\).
A logical choice for sigma
is \((2 \pi) / N\), where \(N\) is the BruntVaisala frequency in the sponge layer.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for the buffer layer 


Switch whether to update the buffer with actual mean profiles 


Height in domain at which the buffer layer starts (m) 


Damping frequency of buffer layer (rad s1) 


Exponent of strength reduction function () 
Column [column]
The Column
class contains the settings for single column output. Columns are only created for each specific (x,y)
pair. So specifying coordinates[x]=100,200
, coordinates[y]=300,400
will create columns for x,y=(100,300)
and x,y=(200,400)
, but not the crosscombinations like e.g. x,y=(100,400)
.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for column statistics 


Time between consecutive samples (s) 


List with xcoordinates column (m) 


List with ycoordinates column (m) 
Cross sections [cross]
The Cross
class contains the settings for the cross sections.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for cross sections 

None 
Time between consecutive samples (s) 

None 
List of cross sections to be made 

None 
List of zlevels for xycross sections 

None 
List of ylevels for xzcross sections 

None 
List of xlevels for yzcross sections 
The table below shows an overview of potential cross sections and the class that provides them.
If a wildcard *
is used, variables can be filled in according to the description.
Always available:
Name 
Description and options 


Densityweighted vertical integral of any prognostic or diagnostic variable 

Bottom boundary value of any prognostic variable 

Top boundary value of any prognostic variable 

Bottom boundary flux of any prognostic variable 

Top boundary flux of any prognostic variable 

Logarithm of the length of the gradient vector for any prognostic variable 
Available if swboundary
!= default
:
Name 
Description and options 


Friction velocity (m s1) 

Obukhov length (m) 
Availabe if [ib]
has swib=1
:
Name 
Description and options 


Bottom boundary flux of any prognostic variable at DEM surface 
Availabe if swmicro
in (nsw6
, 2mom_warm
):
Name 
Description and options 


Surface rain rate (kg s1) 
Availabe if swmicro==nsw6
:
Name 
Description and options 


Surface graupel rate (kg s1) 

Surface snow rate (kg s1) 
Availabe if swradiation
in (rrtmgp
, rrtmgp_rt
):
Name 
Description and options 


Downwelling shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Upwelling shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Downwelling direct shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Downwelling longwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Upwelling longwave radiation flux (W m2) 
Available if swradiation == rrtmgp_rt
:
Name 
Description and options 


Surface downwellling direct shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Surface downwellling diffuse shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Surface upwelling shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Top of domain downwellling shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Top of domain upwelling shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 
Available if swradiation
in (rrtmgp
, rrtmgp_rt
) and swclearskystats=true
:
Name 
Description and options 


Clearsky downwelling shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Clearsky upwelling shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Clearsky downwelling direct shortwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Clearsky downwelling longwave radiation flux (W m2) 

Clearsky upwelling longwave radiation flux (W m2) 
Availabe if swthermo == thermo_moist
:
Name 
Description and options 


Cloud liquid water (kg kg1) 

Cloud ice (kg kg1) 

Cloud liquid water + ice (kg kg1) 

Cloud base height (m) 

Cloud top height (m) 

Densityweighted vertical integral of cloud liquid water (kg m2) 

Densityweighted vertical integral of cloud ice (kg m2) 

Cloud (water+ice) base height (m) 

Cloud (water+ice) top height (m) 

Densityweighted vertical integral of cloud water+ice (kg m2) 

Densityweighted vertical integral of saturated specific humidity (kg m2) 

Vertical velocity at the 500 hPa level (m s1) 
Decay [decay]
Imposes an expontial decay on prognostic variables of choice. It also defines a statistical mask for areas where a decaying field is a certain number of standard deviations above the mean.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Decay type:
0 : No decayexponential : Exponential decaySet per scalar, e.g.
decay[s1]=0 , decay[s2]=exponential 


Exponential decay rate (s) 


Number of standard deviations above the horizontal mean for conditional sampling 
Diffusion [diff]
The Diff
class computes the tendencies related to molecular, and in case of LES, of eddy diffusion. The order of the diffusion scheme has to match the order of the spatial discretization, as set by [grid] swspatialorder
.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for diffusion type
0 : Disabled2 : 2ndorder DNS4 : 4thorder DNSsmag2 : 2ndorder Smagorinsky for LEStke2 : 2ndorder Deardorff TKE scheme for LES 


Max. diffusion number for adaptive time stepping 
For swdiff=smag2
, the following settings are available:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Smagorinsky constant 


Turbulent Prandtl number 


Switch for Mason wall damping 
For swdiff=tke2
, the following settings are available:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Contant TKE scheme (TODO) 


Switch for Mason wall damping 
Dump of 3D fields [dump]
The Dump
class contains the settings for 3D field dumps.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for 3D field dumps 


Switch for dump at two consecutive model iterations 


Time between consecutive samples (s) 


List of 3D dumps to be made 
dumplist
can contain any prognostic or diagnostic field. In addition, swthermo=thermo_moist
can provide:
Name 
Description and options 


Cloud liquid water (kg kg1) 

Cloud ice (kg kg1) 

Absolute temperature (K) 
Fields [fields]
The Fields
class initializes and contains the 3D fields that are passed around in the model.
This class generates passive scalars, which are prognostic variables that are not initialized by other classes.
It is also responsible for the generation of the random perturbation in the init.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



List of passive scalars to be initialized 


Kinematic viscosity (m2 s1) 


Diffusivity of scalars (m2 s1) 


Seed of random number generator () 


Amplitude of perturbations. Value can be specified per
prognostic variable, for instance
rndamp[s] = 0.1 


Height until which perturbations applied (m) 


Decay of perturbation amplitude with height 


Number of pairs of counter rotating vortices () 


Maximum vortex velocity (m s1) 


Orientation of axis vortices
x : Rotation of vortices in xzplaney : Rotation of vortices in yzplane 
Largescale forcings [force]
The Force
class calculates the tendencies for all forms of largescale forcings.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for largescale pressure force
geo : Fixed pressure gradient in xdirectiondpdx : Rotation of vortices in yzplaneuflux : ixed volume flux through domain 


Coriolis parameter (s1) (if 


Fixed pressure gradient in x (Pa m1) (if 


Fixed volumemean velocity (m s1) (if 


Switch for time dependent geostrophic wind 


Switch for largescale advective tendencies 


List of variables for which advective tendencies are given 


Switch for timedependent advective tendencies 


List of scalars with timedependent advective tendencies 


Switch for largescale subsidence (scalars)
local : Advect local fieldmean : Advect horizontally mean field 


Switch for largescale subsidence (momentum) 


Switch for time dependent subsidence 


Switch for nudging 


List of variables to which nudging is applied 


List of variables to which a nudging scale is applied 


Switch for timedependent nudging 


List of variables with timedependent nudging 
Grid [grid]
The Grid
class contains the grid configuration.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Numbers of grid points in x () 


Numbers of grid points in y () 


Numbers of grid points in z () 


Size of the domain in x (m) 


Size of the domain in y (m) 


Size of the domain in z (m) 


Spatial order of the finite differences ()
2 : Secondorder grid4 : Fourthorder grid 


Latitude of the domain center (degrees) 


Longitude of the domain center (degrees) 


Galilean translation velocity in x (m s1) 


Galilean translation velocity in y (m s1) 


Switch for time dependent lat/lon 
Immersed boundary [IB]
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for immersed boundaries 


Number of IDW interpolation points 


Bottom boundary value for scalar variables
Values can be specified per scalar:
sbot[thl]=0.1 . 


Bottom boundary type for scalar variables.
Types can be specified per scalar (
sbot[thl]=flux )dirichlet : Dirichlet BCneumann : Neumann BCflux : Flux BC 


List of scalars with a spatially
varying bottom boundary conditions

Limiter [limiter]
The limiter enforces a lower value of 0.0 for the prognostic fields listed in limitlist
.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



List of scalars for which a lower value of 0.0 is enforced 
Master [master]
The master
class contains the configuration settings for parallel runs.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Numbers of processes in x () 


Numbers of processes in y () 


Maximum run duration in wall clock time (h) 
Microphysics [micro]
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Microphysics scheme
0 : Disabled2mom_warm : Double moment warm (Seifert & Beheng)nsw6 : Single moment ice (Tomita) 


The cloud water droplet number concentration (m3) 


The cloud ice number concentration (m3) 


The CFL criterion limiter for sedimentation 


Output microphysics tendencies in statistics
(2mom_warm only)

For simulations with radiation, Nc0
and Ni0
need to be positive numbers, even when microphysics is disabled.
Pressure [pres]
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Pressure solver
2 : 2nd order accurate4 : rth order accurate 


Force GPU solver to use XY slices 
Radiation [radiation]
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Radiative transfer scheme
0 : Disabledrrtmgp : RTERRTMGPrrtmgp_rt : RTERRTMGP with shortwave ray tracer (GPU only)gcss : GCSS parameterized radiationprescribed : Prescribed surface radiation 
For rrtmgp
and rrtmgp_rt
, the following settings are available:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Time interval at which radiation is solved 


Switch to solve shortwave radiation 


Switch to solve longwave radiation 


Surface albedo direct radiation 


Surface albedo diffuse radiation 


Use delta scaling for clouds 


Use delta scaling for aerosols 


Switch to use a fixed solar zenith angle 


Solar zenith angle (if 


Scaling factor TOD incoming shortwave radiation 


Surface emissivity 


Surface temperature (IS THIS STILL USED?) 


3D parameterization Tijhuis et al (2023, ..) 


Standard deviation of filter width (for 


Switch to update the background column 


List of gas profiles which vary in time 


Output clear sky statistics 


Horizontally homogenize the surface shortwave radiation 


Horizontally homogenize the surface longwave radiation 


Horizontally homogenize the shortwave heating rates 


Horizontally homogenize the longwave heating rates 
rrtmgp_rt
has the following additional settings:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



true : Always use ray tracerfalse : Use 2 stream solver in absence of clouds 


Nullcollision grid size in xdirection 


Nullcollision grid size in ydirection 


Nullcollision grid size in zdirection 


Samples per pixel per spectral quadrature point 
For gcss
the following settings are available:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



TODO 


TODO 


TODO 


TODO 
Finally, prescribed
offers the posibility to prescribe the surface radiative fluxes:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for time dependent prescribed radiative fluxes 


Prescribed surface downwelling shortwave radiation (W m2) 


Prescribed surface upwelling shortwave radiation (W m2) 


Prescribed surface downwelling longwave radiation (W m2) 


Prescribed surface upwelling longwave radiation (W m2) 
Source [source]
The source module can introduce point source emissions in the LES/DNS domain. Optionally, the locations and/or strenght can vary in time.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for emission from point sources 


List of scalars with point source emission 


List if xcoordinates point sources (m) 


List if ycoordinates point sources (m) 


List if zcoordinates point sources (m) 


Stddev. of Gaussian release blob in x (m) 


Stddev. of Gaussian release blob in y (m) 


Stddev. of Gaussian release blob in z (m) 


TODO 


TODO 


TODO 


Source release strength 


true : strength is in kmol s1 (vmr)false : strenght is in ``kg kg s1 (mmr) 


Switch for time varying source locations 


Switch for time varying source strength 


Switch for prescribing vertical emission profile 


Profile index for each source location 
Statistics [stats]
The statistics class contains the settings for the statistics output, in particular the time series and the profiles. All statistics can be masked, meaning that only grid points that satisfy a certain condition are included in the statistics.
The statistics over the entire domain are written out in a file named <casename>.default.<restarttime>.nc
. Conditional statistics are written out in files named <casename>.<maskname>.<restarttime>.nc
.
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for statistics 


Time between statistics sampling 


Enable/Disable budget terms of all prognostic variables 


List of variables that should not be included in the statistics
Can be a regular expression



List of variables that should be included in the statistics
Can be a regular expression



List of masks that should be applied over the statistics
ql : Where ql > 0 bplus : Where buoyancy b > 0 bmin : Where buoyancy``b < 0``qlcore : Where ql>0 and b > 0 qr : Where qr > 1e6 (2mom_warm )wplus : Where w > 0 wmin : Where w < 0 couvreux : Where the couvreux scalar is nstd standard deviations above the horizontal meanib : Where the atmosphere is above the IB 


List with xy masks from binary input file 
Thermodynamics [thermo]
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Thermodynamics switch
0 : Disable thermodynamicsbuoy : Use buoyancy as prognostic variabledry : Dry thermodynamics (prognostic th)moist : Moist thermodynamics (prognostic thl+qt, diagnostic ql+qi+… 
Options for dry
and moist
:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for background base state:
boussinesq : Boussinesq approximation with rho=1anelastic : Anelastic approximation with varying rho 


Surface pressure 


Switch to enable time varying surface pressure 
Options for dry
:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Reference potential temperature 
Additional options for baroclinic instability in dry
:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Switch for baroclinic instability 


Largescale temperature gradient in ydirection (K m1) 
Options for moist
:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Reference virtual potential temperature 


Update base state during simulation 
Options for buoy
:
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



TODO 


TODO 


Switch for baroclinic instability 


Largescale buoyancy gradient in ydirection 
Timeloop [time]
Name 
Default 
Description and options 



Start time of simulation (s) 


End time of simulation (s) 


Interval at which a restart file will be saved (s) 


Adaptive time stepping, based on CFL, Diffusion Number, and other limitations 


Maximum time step (s) 


Initial time step (s) 


Order of the RungeKutta scheme
3 : Third order accurate4 : Fourth order accurate 


Number of iterations between diagnostic output is written to 


Precision of the file timestamp, in 


Calendar start time of the simulation. Must be of the format YYMMDD HH:MM::SS 


Time step to use in postprocessing mode 